Red Elderberry has a vase-like form that creates an umbrella-like canopy of 8-10 feet over smaller woodland shrubs. Flowers appear in late spring, followed by bright red berries in late summer. Red Elderberry is used for revegetation, erosion control, and wildlife plantings. It tolerates severe pruning and a wide range of soils, but prefers moist, humusy, nutrient-rich, neutral to slightly acidic loams in full to part sun. Deer will eat the foliage, bark and buds, but red elderberry is usually not a preferred browse; palatability increases after frost and probably varies with relative cyanide content of individual plants. Many birds, as well as squirrels, mice, raccoons, and bears eat the berries. Porcupines, mice and hares eat the buds and bark in winter. Flowers are pollinated by bees, flies, and the wind. Fruit-eating birds and mammals disperse the seeds.