Kentucky coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) is a rare, caffeine-free (), hardy, handsome and unusual-looking shade tree, reaching 60-75'. Native Americans made coffee from ground, roasted seeds (which occur only on female trees) and used leaves and pulp medicinally to treat constipation and insanity. The raw seeds are poisonous to humans and animals, and persist until spring, adding winter interest. Flowers appear in early summer and are quite fragrant, with larger female flowers (8-12") and male flowers (4-6") appearing on separate trees. KCT prefers full sun, but tolerates moderate shade, pollution, and a wide range of soil conditions including salt, drought and alkaline pH, though it does best in floodplains and low, moist sites. New leaves appear later than most other trees in spring and are tinged in pink, turning blue-green in summer.